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How to improve the utilization rate of fertilizer

With the rapid development of global agriculture, the agricultural economy has entered a new period. In order to improve the yield and quality of agricultural products, it is urgent to reduce land input and improve the utilization rate of fertilizer. 

So, what should we do? Here we have some suggestions:

1. Determine the optimal fertilizer application rate

Fertilizers should be rationally selected according to the actual situation of local soil, the growth period of crops, and the law of fertilizer needs. The maximum amount of water in a bucket is determined by the shortest wood in the bucket. The same is true when applying fertilizer. If you want plants to grow well, stick to the principle of filling the soil with what is missing.

2. Control the fertilization period reasonably

Germinating plants use mostly the nutrients stored in their seeds to grow and absorb very little from the soil. At the seedling stage, the plant root system is still not developed enough to absorb soil nutrients. 

Topdressing: generally, when crops appear jointing, branching, flower pod formation, bud, and boll formation, stem and leaf significant elongation and other phenomena, namely, in the early and middle stage of crop growth, topdressing. And, when crops appear booting, flower and boll period, stem and leaf rapid growth, fruit expansion and other phenomena, namely, in the late and middle stage of crop growth, topdressing. In the case of one-time topdressing, it should be applied in the early stage of peak fertilizer demand, that is, in the critical period of peak fertilizer demand. For example, in the growing period of the garlic flower stem, the differentiated leaves are all exhibited, the root system expands to the maximum range, the underground bulb also begins to expand, and the weight gain of the whole plant is the fastest. This is the most critical period for fertilizer, and the supply of fertilizer must be guaranteed.

The amount of nitrogen fertilizer in the base fertilizer generally accounts for 30% ~ 60% of the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen topdressing generally accounts for 40% ~ 70% of the total nitrogen application. Nitrogen fertilizer is generally applied 1 ~ 3 times.

3. Adopt an appropriate crop rotation system

A suitable crop rotation system can improve the fertilizer utilization rate and reduce loss. For example, the rotation of legumes and other crops can save fertilizer, and the rotation of deep-root and shallow-root crops can make full use of nutrients in the soil.

4. Suitable fertilization and tillage methods

Different soil textures, fertilization methods are different. Clay soil should use base fertilizer, early topdressing. Sandy soil should be a small number of multiple methods. At the same time, in the area with a large soil slope, conservation tillage should be adopted, that is, no-tillage or less tillage to reduce soil disturbance. In plain areas, tillage can be adopted to destroy soil pores or maintain soil moisture to prevent fertilizer leakage.

5. Adopt reasonable irrigation methods

On dry land, advanced irrigation methods such as drip irrigation or sprinkler irrigation are advocated to avoid flooding irrigation. In paddy fields, field water management is strengthened to reduce farmland water discharge. As far as soil moisture is concerned, when it is too little, it will cause plant wilting, stomata closing, and transpiration weakening. The concentration of ions around the root tip decreased and the root pressure weakened, which seriously affected the upward transport of soil nutrients. When it is too much, it will cause soil air reduction, root environment deterioration, affect root absorption, but also can cause fertilizer leakage loss.

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